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Citing APA style

In academic and business writing we often make use of other peoples’ ideas. This is usually done to give support to your own ideas (provide evidence). We use direct quotations, paraphrases and summaries to illustrate these ideas in our writing. 

Direct quotations

What do I need to cite?

When you use a direct quotation: the exact words of the author

How do I insert the citation?

Include the author, year and page number.

Examples:

  • Sustainability is the “endurance of systems and processes” (Smith, 2016, p.14).
  • According to Smith (2016) sustainability is the “endurance of systems and processes” (p.14).

Paraphrase

What do I need to cite?

When you use a paraphrase: information that has been rewritten from a source into your own words without changing the meaning.

How do I insert the citation?
Include the author and year.

Examples:

  • Sustainability can be defined as a socio-ecological process (Smith, 2016).
  • According to Smith (2016), sustainability is…
  • Smith (2016) defines sustainability as a …

Summary

What do I need to cite?

When you use a summary: a summary of the main ideas from a text into one or two sentences.

How do I insert the citation?

Include the author and year.

Examples (referencing is the same for both a paraphrase and a summary):

  • Sustainability can be defined as a socio-ecological process (Smith, 2016).
  • According to Smith (2016), sustainability is…
  • Smith (2016) defines sustainability as a …

NOTE: Lack of referencing as well as copying large amounts of information from other sources can be seen as plagiarism (cheating) and you may face penalties. All University of Auckland students must complete an Academic Integrity Course to make sure you understand your responsibility as a student.

Citing multiple authors

The following shows you how to cite one or more authors in your writing:

Number of authors
Examples
One author
A reporting verb is a word which is used to talk about or report on other people’s work (Jordan, 2010).
Two authors
Cite both names everytime you refer to their work.

One of the most common ways to incorporate these citations into your writing is to use reporting verbs to help you to present the information (Smith & Jones, 2016).

Three (or more) authors
You must cite all the authors’ names the first time you refer to that work.

Academic writing requires you to use citations to refer to the original source when you have used someone else’s ideas or concepts in your writing (Smith, Jones, & Harry, 2016).

In subsequent references to the work you should use the first author’s last name and the abbreviation ‘et al.’ e.g. (Smith et al., 2016).

Additional Resources

The University of Auckland provides a comprehensive APA guide for Business students.

 Zotero is a free programme that helps you manage your sources. You can add citations directly into Word documents and the programme will create a reference list for you at the click of a button.

Referencite has an interactive tool that will identify how to cite and reference a source correctly based on the information you put into the tool.

Check out this video introducing APA style referencing: