# Excel formulas

## 5 basics

- All Excel formulas start with an equal (=) sign. This tells Excel it is a formula.
- The answer to the formula displays in the cell that the formula is entered.
- Cells are referenced in a formula by their column-row identifier, i.e. A1, B2.
- The symbols for addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division are: + – * /
- You do not have to enter capital letters in your formula; Excel will automatically capitalise them.

## Examples of simple formulas

**=A1+A6 **this Excel formula adds the contents of cell A1 and A6.

**=A1+A2+A3 **this Excel formula adds the contents of the three cells specified (see the SUM function for adding multiple numbers).

**=A3-A1 **this Excel formula subtracts the contents of cell A1 from the contents of cell A3.

**=B2*B3 **this Excel formula multiples the numbers in cells B2 and B3.

**=G5/A5 **this Excel formula divides G5 by A5 (NOTE: If you see the error message #DIV/O! in a cell, you are trying to divide by zero or a null value – which is not allowed).

**=G5^2 **this formula tells Excel to square the value in cell G5. The number *after* the caret is the exponent. Likewise, the formula H2^3 would cube the value in cell H2.

## Sum and average

The following video has a section about** formulas** as well as functions such as **sum** and **average**.